Animal meat has been a fundamental supply of nourishment for generations within the Central Asia area, which reportedly has a higher-than-global common degree of meat consumption per capita.
As an illustration, Kazakhstan has the best per capita consumption of sheep meat on the planet, with a median of 8.5kg per individual yearly, in response to World Inhabitants Evaluate.
In addition to well being issues brought on by extreme meat consumption, there are additionally rising considerations about meals safety and the environmental affect of meat manufacturing.
Nonetheless, encouraging populations to shift in the direction of plant-based alternate options poses sensible challenges that decision for revolutionary approaches.
The convergence of 3D printing expertise with the meals trade holds vital promise. Via 3DFP, plant-based substitutes that don’t depend on livestock may be created.
As such, a bunch of researchers from Kazakhstan performed a evaluate of current research to discover the utilisation of widespread plant-based protein sources, similar to soybean, pea, lentil and buckwheat, for 3DFP.
“3DFP includes producing meat and dairy substitutes utilizing plant-based components which can be 3D-printed right into a desired form and texture. One of the vital purposes is the manufacturing of cell-based meat.
“In locations similar to Central Asia the place meat consumption is firmly ingrained in tradition, 3DFP can play a important position in manufacturing plant-based alternate options that mimic the flavour and really feel of conventional meat, serving to the transition to extra sustainable consuming patterns,” the authors wrote.
Though 3DFP continues to be in its early levels, the researchers imagine that it has opened new potentialities for personalised vitamin, and will revolutionise the trade by offering a extra eco-friendly and moral strategy to meals manufacturing.
“At present, the checklist of 3D-printable meals sorts continues to be restricted. However as analysis on this subject progresses, a rise in revolutionary purposes of 3D printing expertise within the meals trade may be anticipated.”
Buckwheat in focus
Plant-based meals sources comprise various dietary profiles. For instance, pea protein is wealthy in important amino acids, significantly lysine and threonine. It is usually simply digestible, and has been proven to cut back blood strain and enhance kidney perform.
Lentils, that are excessive in protein and fibre, could also be floor into flour to make textured meals with customisable style. Soybeans, additionally identified for prime protein content material, are broadly employed in plant-based alternate options.
Buckwheat is a gluten-free grain that’s considerable in protein, fibre, vitamin B6, magnesium, zinc, and different antioxidants. It has additionally been reported to assist decrease levels of cholesterol.
Findings from the evaluate indicated that buckwheat, a dietary staple in Central Asia, may very well be a really perfect candidate for 3DFP, as it’s generally cultivated within the area and comprises a variety of properties appropriate for particular 3D-printing purposes.
“Buckwheat is a novel materials within the realm of 3D printing because of its distinct traits. Buckwheat-based filaments can produce prints with a barely grainy texture. This may be fascinating for sure purposes the place a pure, natural look is most well-liked.
“On account of its rheological properties which can be extremely appropriate for 3D printing, buckwheat performs as the most suitable choice amongst cereal grains. Moreover, 3D-printed samples achieved good self-supporting properties by stirring and cooling buckwheat-based components.”
Buckwheat manufacturing can also be advantageous from an environmental standpoint. The fast progress cycle of buckwheat, in addition to its capacity to flourish with minimal artificial inputs wanted, lower the possibilities of soil erosion and chemical discharge.
“Incorporating plant-based proteins into one’s weight-reduction plan may be a good way to enhance well being and scale back carbon footprint. These vegetation can be utilized to organize a wide range of dishes, together with soups, stews, salads, and smoothies, and as supplementation within the type of protein powder.
“Nonetheless, it is very important observe that these vegetation are only when mixed with different components and below optimised experimental circumstances. Additional analysis is warranted to optimise processing methods and discover potential synergies with different meals supplies.”
Challenges for widespread adoption
To efficiently combine 3D printing in meals manufacturing, printing parameters similar to layer top, print pace and nozzle dimension, have to be adequately understood and managed.
Layer top refers back to the thickness of every particular person layer that constitutes the ultimate object. It’s a parameter that immediately impacts the decision and floor end of a printed half. Though smaller layer heights end in finer particulars and smoother surfaces, they improve printing time.
Print pace determines how shortly the printer’s nozzle strikes whereas extruding materials. It impacts the general printing time and may affect the printed meals’s high quality. On account of much less time for every layer to chill, greater print speeds could trigger points similar to stringing or warping.
The nozzle dimension additionally performs a significant position — smaller nozzles yield higher-resolution prints with detailed options, whereas bigger nozzles allow quicker printing however at a decrease decision.
Past these technical elements, different limitations to broad adoption of 3DFP embody procurement of high-quality plant-based supplies, guaranteeing style and texture consistency, and cost-effectiveness and scalability.
On the similar time, client acceptance must be thought-about.
“Market traits point out a shift in the direction of revolutionary meals applied sciences that align with sustainability and well being traits, however this shift would require steady engagement with shoppers to know their preferences and handle their considerations.
“There’s a want for strategic advertising and academic campaigns to construct belief and familiarity with 3D-printed meals, so shoppers can be prepared to incorporate them of their diets. Subsequently, overcoming the technical, financial, and consumer-related challenges could be the key to unlocking the total potential of 3D printing in decreased meat consumption,” the researchers concluded.
“Decreasing meat consumption in Central Asia by way of 3D printing of plant-based protein—enhanced alternate options—a mini evaluate”
Authors: Ulanbek Auyeskhan, et al